1 The community immediately preceding the climax, especially where this is forest. For example, on light soils in Britain, birchwood is often the pre-climax to oakwood.
2 In the monoclimax model (see climax theory) of climax vegetation development, the name given to communities differing from the climatic climax owing to environmental conditions that are less favourable for vegetation development than those of the surrounding region. For example, grassland might develop in rain-shadow areas in the lee of a mountain range, in an area that was otherwise forested. Compare post-climax.
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