(b. Bolkhoz, Central Russia, 1886; d. 1937)
Russian; ‘Old Bolshevik’ and political theorist Preobrazhensky was the son of an Orthodox priest, and was a revolutionary sympathizer by the time he left school. He worked for the Bolsheviks inside Russia. After the February Revolution of 1917 he returned to his home territory east of the Urals, where he helped set up Soviet government. He fought in the Civil War against the Czech Legion and against Kolchaks' Whites. In 1919 he returned to Moscow where he worked for Pravda and helped draft the party's 1919 programme. In 1920 he became a secretary of the Party's Central Committee responsible for the finances of party and state institutions. He was a supporter of Trotsky and campaigned for greater internal democracy within the party. He clashed with Stalin and Zinoviev, who in 1926 condemned him as a member of the ‘New Opposition’, and expelled him from the party. Jointly with Bukharin he wrote the ABC of Communism, which was to be an influential study of socialist theory. In 1927 he was exiled to Siberia. He conceded to Stalin and was readmitted to the party in 1929, but was subsequently expelled. He was arrested and imprisoned in 1935, appearing as a witness for the prosecution at Zinoviev's trial. He died in prison.