A collective name for the scholarly activities that form the scientific base for public health practice, services, and systems. Until the early 19th century, scholarly activities were limited to natural and biological sciences sometimes enlightened by empirical logic. The scientific base has broadened to include vital statistics, epidemiology, environmental sciences, biostatistics, microbiology, social and behavioral sciences, genetics, nutrition, molecular biology, and more. Scholars in the domain of public health have embraced new concepts of disease and its causes and control, and have developed generalizations and axioms to explain observations and to enhance control measures. Occasional misguided beliefs, such as those about race and eugenics, remind us of our fallibility. Schools of public health are focal points for many studies of public health sciences, and this has become a popular title for university departments.
Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.