Architect and pioneer of the Victorian Gothic Revival. Before Pugin, ‘Gothick’ architecture had been largely a romantic plaything of rich dilettantes. He saw something deeper in it. According to Pugin, Gothic was the only Christian—by which he meant Roman catholic—style. Alton Towers (1836), Scarisbrick Hall (1837), the catholic cathedrals of Birmingham (1841) and Newcastle (1844), and the lush detailing of the new Houses of Parliament (1840–52)—the classicist Charles Barry did the main plan—are some of the results. They are not the greatest examples of the genre; but Pugin should really be judged by the inspiration he gave to better architects (like Scott and William Butterfield) after him.