The popular nickname of a group of Ismaili Shiis who founded the Fatimid dynasty in the tenth century. Initially, the Qaramita challenged the Abbasids in the Iraqi and Syrian deserts. Although defeated in 906, they later established an Ismaili republic in eastern Arabia. From there, the Qaramita carried out extensive raiding in western Arabia and Iraq and stole the Black Stone of the Kaaba. In 909 their caliphal candidate al-Mahdi, with the help of a Berber tribal bloc, overthrew the Rustomids of Tahert and the Aghlabids of the eastern Maghreb, thereby establishing the Fatimid dynasty.