Dome of the Rock. Muslim shrine erected circa 692 in the Haram al-Sharif, Jerusalem. Symbolically placed as an Islamic visual challenge to the nearby dome of the Holy Sepulcher, the domed structure was built by the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik on the site of the rock (sakhra) where, according to Muslim tradition, the Prophet Muhammad departed for his mystical journey (miraj) to heaven and hell. The annular plan, closely related to Roman and Byzantine antecedents, consists of two ambulatories around the central domed space. Complex vegetal decoration and Arabic inscriptions in mosaic decorate the interior.