1. Rag proteins are a family of four small GTP-binding proteins (RagA–D) that interact with the mTORC1 protein kinase complex and are necessary for the activation of the mTORC1 pathway by amino acids. Raptor is the key mediator of the rag–mTORC1 interaction.
2. RAG1 and RAG2 (recombination-activating genes 1 and 2) encode proteins (1043 and 1040 aa) that together form a transposase capable of excising a piece of DNA containing recombination signals from a donor site and inserting it into a target DNA molecule. The RAG complex activates the V(D)J recombination process that generates diversity in immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors. Mutations in RAG1 and RAG2 can lead to forms of severe combined immunodeficiency disease and Omenn's syndrome.