novelist, short‐story writer, and screenwriter, born in Chicago, educated at St John's College, Cambridge, and long resident in England. His novels, many of which deal with the dilemmas of educated middle‐class life, include Obbligato (1956), The Limits of Love (1960, set partly in Jewish north London), and The Graduate Wife (1962). In Lindmann (1963), the ‘courteous and sad and homeless’ Austrian Lindmann survives the break‐up of the illegal immigrant ship the SS Broda (an actual historical event). Other novels include Orchestra and Beginners (1967), Heaven and Earth (1985), and Coast to Coast (1998). Raphael's screenplays include Darling (1965, directed by John Schlesinger), a satire of life in the swinging sixties, and a six‐part TV series, The Glittering Prizes (1976), which follows the careers of a group of artistic and theatrical Cambridge undergraduates from 1952 to the 1970s. A prequel, Spoilt Boy, was published in 2003. Raphael also translated Catullus (1978, with K. McLeish) and Aeschylus (1991).