A term originating in aesthetic theory (an early discussion is in Bharata's Nāṭyaśāstra), where it designates an impersonal and universalized experience, or ‘mood’, of joy and bliss, which is created in an audience out of the principal emotions (bhāvas (1)) evoked in a drama. Although rasa in itself is a single, ineffable experience of entrancement or aesthetic rapture, it is subdivided for analytical purposes according to the principal feelings which evoke it. There are said to be eight such emotions—love (rati), laughter (hāsa), sorrow (śoka), energy (utsāha), anger (krodha), fear (bhaya), disgust (jugupsā), and amazement (vismaya)—which engender eight corresponding rasa—the erotic (śṛṅgāra), comic (hāsya), pathetic (karuṇa), heroic (vīra), furious (raudra), fearful (bhayānaka), grotesque (bībhatsa), and wondrous (adbhuta). Through his commentary on Nāṭyaśāstra, Abhinavagupta developed a sophisticated theory of aesthetics which regarded rasa as a distinct mode of experience situated between ordinary awareness and enlightenment, although it differs from the latter only in degree. The concept was also imported into the bhakti environment of Gauḍīya, and other Vaiṣṇava devotional movements, where the bhāva (2) of erotic love, such as that experienced by the gopīs and Rādhā, is thought to be salvific when experienced through the associated rasa of pure bliss.