A major Buddhist monastic centre located in the Asia Hills near Cuttack in present-day Orissa. The centre dates from the 5th century ce and formed part of a complex of monastic settlements with Udayagiri and Lalitagiri. A number of great Mahāyāna andtantric masters are associated with Ratnagiri such as Dignāga and Nāropa. It also seems to have survived longer than the other great Buddhist centres such as Nālandā and thus was a last refuge for many Buddhist scholars after the 12th century. Excavation of the extensive ruins have also yielded a wealth of sculptural treasures which indicate that Ratnagiri and its neighbouring establishments were important centres for the development and practice of tantric Buddhism.