In models of communication or persuasion, specific variables associated with the receiver(s) that research has identified as among those that can affect the effectiveness of the message. These might include: age, sex, level of education, self-esteem, resistance to persuasion, level of involvement, incentives for participation, and so on. For instance, those most vulnerable to persuasion are those with low self-esteem; an existing deep involvement with an issue (ego involvement) makes people less vulnerable to persuasion unless the argument is consistent with the individual's current position (see also selective exposure). See also audience factors; decoding ability; receiver skills; Yale model.
Subjects: Media Studies.