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Demonstration that an observation or a belief is false or based on false premises. The Austrian-British philosopher of science Karl Popper (1902–1994) analyzed how science advances and pointed out in Logik der Forschung (1935), translated as The Logic of Scientific Discovery (1959), that verification may merely help to perpetuate false beliefs about incompletely studied problems, whereas suitable study may refute previously held false beliefs. According to Popper, the only valid way to uphold a scientific truth is failure of refutation.

Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.

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