(b Königsberg, 1752; d Giebichenstein, 1814).
Ger. composer, conductor, and writer. Court composer and cond. to Frederick the Great and Frederick II, 1775–94. Instituted many reforms. Visited London and Paris 1785 and again some years later. Dismissed from court post for sympathy with Fr. Revolution. Cond. Kassel Opera 1808. Wrote at least 12 operas, Singspiele, setting of Milton's Morning Hymn, over 1,500 songs (incl. setting of Erlkönig, highly praised by Mendelssohn), and much chamber mus. Author of several books on comp.