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Was a Roman form of exile. It might be either decreed by a magistrate (from the late republic) as a coercive measure or imposed as a penalty in a criminal trial. The criminal penalty had gradations ranging from temporary expulsion to dēportātiō (introduced by Tiberius). The latter was a perpetual banishment to a particular place (see islands), combined with confiscation of property and loss of citizenship. Banishment in all its forms was esp. a punishment for the higher classes. The lower classes were punished for similar crimes with forced labour or even death. See punishment, greek and roman practice.

Subjects: Classical Studies.

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