This term describes methods of investigation and treatment for couples who desire to have a child and have failed to conceive one. Most methods were developed in the last third of the 20th century. They include the use of artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, fertility-enhancing drugs, embryo freezing, and, theoretically, human use of cloning comparable to cloning that has been successfully used with animals, albeit with many failed attempts. Almost all new reproductive technologies present challenging moral and ethical problems.
Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.