Is the deliberate limiting of output by individual employees and work groups. Restriction of output has been widely observed and is a feature of work behaviour in many different occupations. Understanding and eliminating the problem has also been a major concern of the social and management sciences. Taylor's system of scientific management was developed to overcome what he called systematic soldiering by employees, and in the 1930s, the human relations school explained restriction of output in terms of the psychological pressure on individuals to conform to workgroup norms. More recently, restriction of output has been viewed as economically rational behaviour by employees intended to reduce effort levels and counter management attempts to intensify work. Despite the vogue for ‘high performance’ and ‘high commitment’ work systems, restriction of output continues to be a feature of many work situations.
Subjects: Human Resource Management.