(b Brno, 1864; d Vienna, 1935).
Austrian stage designer and painter. In 1890s helped to found Vienna Sezession with Schiele, Kokoschka, and Klimt. Prof. at Vienna School of Art 1900, orch. 1909–34. Engaged by Mahler at Vienna Court Opera, 1903, to provide new sets for Fidelio, Don Giovanni, Tristan und Isolde, and Das Rheingold and Die Walküre. These revolutionized stage design. Worked closely with Max Reinhardt at Salzburg Fest. Chief designer Vienna Opera 1903–9, 1918–34, and at Burgtheater 1918–34. Designed orig. prods. of Strauss's Der Rosenkavalier (Dresden 1911) and Die Frau ohne Schatten (Vienna 1919), also first Vienna Elektra (1909).