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For Francis Haverfield, writing in the early 20th century, Romanization was a historical process involving a material change to native cultures brought about by a strong Roman presence that resulted in native cultures closely resembling that of Rome. More recently, Otto Brendal and Martin Millett have instead emphasized the processes of dialectical change that resulted in a synthesis of cultures. Romanization in this sense was not simply the result of change initiated by the Romans but rather a two‐way process of acculturation.

Subjects: Classical Studies.

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