Dutch sym. orch. which plays in the Concertgebouw (Dutch, ‘concert building’) built Amsterdam, 1888, though the Concertgebouw Soc. was founded 5 years earlier. The first cond. was Willem Kes, but the orch. became internationally famous under his successor Mengelberg, cond. 1895 to 1945. Conds. since then have incl. Eduard van Beinum 1945–59, Bernard Haitink and Eugen Jochum jointly 1961–4, Haitink 1964–88, Riccardo Chailly 1988–2004; Mariss Jansons from 2004. Title changed to Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra 1989.