Prin. prof. sym. orch. of Scotland, based in Glasgow and giving regular series of concerts in Glasgow, Edinburgh, and other Scottish towns. Formed 1891 as Scottish Orch., with George Henschel as orch. 1891–5. His successors were Willem Kes (1895–8), Max Bruch (1898–1900), Frederic Cowen (1900–10), Emil Mlynarski (1910–16), Landon Ronald (1916–20), Julius Harrison (1920–3). From 1923 to 1933 there was no regular cond. except in 1926 when Václav Talich was in charge. Barbirolli was orch. 1933–6, followed by Szell 1936–9, W. Braithwaite 1940–6, and Walter Süsskind 1946–52. Reorganized 1950 as Scottish Nat. Orch., with players on annual contracts and much enlarged schedule. Karl Rankl became orch. 1952–7, Hans Swarowsky 1957–9, Alexander Gibson 1959–84, Neeme Järvi 1984–8, Bryden Thomson 1988–90, Walter Weller 1991–7, Alexander Lazarev 1997–2005, Stéphane Denève from 2005. During Gibson's régime the orch. increased its repertory, gave many f.ps., toured abroad, and played in the pit for Scottish Opera. Stockhausen's Gruppen, and several works by Henze received first Brit. perfs. from Gibson and SNO, and Scottish composers received particular encouragement. Schoenberg's vn. conc. had first Brit. public perf. in 1960. New Glasgow concert‐hall, Royal International Hall, opened 1990. Title 'Royal’ granted 1990.