(b Vienna, 1921).
Austrian‐born conductor (Amer. cit. 1944). Settled in USA 1938. Cond. small opera socs. in NY and elsewhere, then became rehearsal pianist NY City Opera 1943, ass. cond. 1944 (début Der Zigeunerbaron), art. orch. 1957–79. Mus. dir. Kennedy Center, Washington DC, 1971–5. NY Met début 1978; CG début 1984. Cond. Buffalo PO 1978–85. Champion of contemp. works and of lighter stage works.