Early copper‐mining area in the limestone hills of the Saska Valley in the upland Majdapek area of eastern Serbia. Excavations by B. Jovanovi between 1968 and 1982 revealed more than 25 shafts following veins of malachite 20 m or more into the ground. The technique used seems to have been to build platforms on the steep hillside and from these to follow the almost vertical veins down into the ground. Sealed deposits of miners' lamps, antler picks, and stone mauls have been found in abandoned shafts. Pottery of the Vinča Culture has also been found in the backfilled shafts, emphasizing the antiquity of these operations back into the early 4th millennium bc.
B. Jovanovi, 1979, The technology of primary copper mining in south‐east Europe. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 45, 103–10