Samuel Rutherford

(c. 1600—1661) Church of Scotland minister and political theorist

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Scottish Presbyterian minister. In 1639 he became professor of divinity at St Mary's College, St Andrews, and in 1647 principal. He was one of the Scottish Commissioners at the Westminster Assembly in 1643. His Lex Rex (1644), attacking monarchical absolutism, brought him repute as a constitutional theorist; it was publicly burnt at the Restoration (1660). In A Free Disputation against Pretended Liberty of Conscience (1649) he defended religious persecution on the ground that advocacy of toleration put conscience in the place of God and the Bible.

Subjects: Philosophy — Christianity.

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