(b New York, 25 Jan. 1886; d Broomall, Pa., 29 May 1953).
American painter, active mainly in Paris, a pioneer of abstract art. He studied in New York—sculpture at the Art Students League and painting under Robert Henri. In 1908 he settled in Paris, where he briefly attended Matisse's art school. By 1910 he was devoting himself increasingly to painting, and in 1911 he met Stanton Macdonald-Wright, with whom he developed theories about the analogies between colours and musical patterns. In 1913 they launched Synchromism, one of the earliest abstract movements, and Russell's Synchromy in Orange: To Form (1913–14, Albright-Knox AG, Buffalo) won him considerable renown in Paris. His later work, in which he reintroduced figurative elements, was much less memorable. He lived in Paris until 1946, then returned to the USA.