Calvinist pastor and student of St Francis. He held two pastoral posts, but was forced by ill health to give up this work; he devoted the rest of his life to his research. His Vie de S. François (1893; Eng. tr., 1894) depicts Francis's mission as a renewal of the medieval Church in the light of the ‘pure Gospel’; it is brilliant in presentation and penetrating in its psychological understanding. His later work brought to light much new material, though some of his contentions about the primitive sources have turned out to be mistaken.