A term applied to ethical principles and forms of self-restraint which are considered to be ‘common to all’, or ‘universal’ (sādhāraṇa), as opposed to the particularistic ethics associated with varṇāśramadharma. Various lists exist, many of them echoing the restraints (yama) associated with renouncer groups and practitioners of yoga. The principal element is often non-violence or non-harming (ahiṃsā), accompanied by truthfulness (satya), not stealing (asteya), and various bodily and emotional restraints. More abstract virtues, such as knowledge (jñāna) and wisdom (vidyā) may also be included. See also dharma.