(d. ca. 671)
Early convert to Islam and one of the ten eminent Companions of the Prophet Muhammad to whom he is believed to have promised paradise. Considered among the six people appointed by the second caliph, Umar, to elect his successor (644). Known for fighting in all of the Prophet's battles and for being appointed by Umar as commander of the army that defeated the Persian Sasanid empire circa 636. Although a well-respected pious leader of early Islam, he did not contend for the caliphate. Seeing no way for humans to judge the faith of others, he remained neutral during the strife between the fourth caliph, Ali, and Muawiyah.