(b. 1860, d. 23 Aug. 1927).
Egyptian nationalist; Premier 1924 Born in Ibyana, he studied law in Cairo and Paris. As Education Minister (1906) he insisted on the use of Arabic in primary schools. He was Minister of Justice (1910–12), and in 1913 was elected to the legislative assembly, where he became leader of the opposition. After World War I, he led a delegation (wafd) to London to petition for an Egyptian delegation to the Paris Peace Conference (1919) which would have meant the recognition of Egypt's sovereignty, but this was rejected. He was expelled until 1923, when he became leader of a nationalist movement called the Wafd party. He won every subsequent election until his death, but was only briefly Premier, owing to the hostility of the British and of King Fuad.
Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).