Ottoman grand vizier and Islamic reformer. Leader of the Islamist faction of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) and spokesman for the conservative Islamist faction of Young Turks. His appointment as grand vizier was intended to appease Arab/Islamic sentiment in the Ottoman Empire. He argued that Islam was a rational religion encouraging scientific thought. He believed it was damaging to blindly borrow Western ideas such as constitutionalism, since the problems of Western society differ from those of Islamic society and the Islamic world should look for answers in the context of its own traditions and heritage, especially shariah. Assassinated by an Armenian nationalist.