Fest. held annually in Austrian town where Mozart was born. Mus. coll. known as Mozarteum est. there 1880. In 1877, first of 8 Mozart fests. up to 1910 was held there with Richter, Mottl, Mahler, Strauss, Muck, and Schalk among conds. In 1917, Hofmannsthal, Strauss, Max Reinhardt, and Schalk became dirs. of planned new fest. which opened in 1920 with a perf. of Hofmannsthal's Jedermann. The 1921 fest. was devoted to orchestral and chamber works and the Requiem. Four operas were perf. in 1922. In 1927 Festspielhaus was opened as opera house (re‐designed 1963), and old riding school (Felsenreitschule) was converted into th. (re‐designed 1968–70). Singers engaged were the best from Vienna and Munich, conds. incl. Krauss, Strauss, and Walter. Repertory mainly Mozart and Strauss, with Beethoven's Fidelio, Verdi's Falstaff, and Wagner's Die Meistersinger. Toscanini cond. there 1934–7; followed by Furtwängler, Böhm, etc. After war, fest. resumed 1946. Strauss's Die Liebe der Danae, which reached dress‐rehearsal stage in 1944, had f.p. there 1952. New operas by Einem, Orff, Henze, Nono, Blacher, Liebermann, Egk, Penderecki, etc. prod. there. Fest. also incl. sym. concerts, chamber mus., recitals, plays. Karajan art. dir. 1957–60 and 1964–89. New Festspielhaus opened 1960, seating 2,160. Has largest stage in world, 135′ wide, 70′ deep, and 120′ high. After 2004, small Festspielhaus rebuilt as ‘House for Mozart’ in time for 2006 festival. When Karajan died, he was succeeded as art. dir. by a triumvirate headed by Gerard Mortier which widened the scope of the fest. Mortier resigned in 2001. Dir. since then: Peter Ruzicka (2002–6), Jürgen Flimm from 2007. In 1967 Karajan est. an Easter Fest. at which the operas prod. incl. Wagner. After Karajan's death, Solti was art. dir. Easter Fest. 1992–3, Abbado 1994–2002, Rattle from 2003.