(b Tiflis, 1884; d Moscow, 1964).
Russ. conductor, cellist, and teacher. Cellist in various orchs. Cond., Mariinsky Th., Petrograd, 1917–19 and art. dir. Maly Th. 1918–36. Art. dir Bolshoy Th. 1936–43. Taught cond. at Leningrad Cons. 1929–36. Cond. f.ps. of Shostakovich's The Nose and Prokofiev's 7th Sym.