Reformist Iranian theologian. Chief representative of a radical notion of modernity who tried to advance ideas such as discarding the institution of taqlid (emulation of the exemplary conduct of religious authorities). Proposed a return to absolute monotheism, the rejection of the Shii cult of saints, and stress on rationalism to rescue the Shii faith from medieval absolutism while equipping it for confrontation with the perceived evils of the West. Rejected the Shii belief in the return of the Twelfth Imam to earth prior to resurrection in order to avenge Muhammad's descendants of all prejudices and violence inflicted on them throughout the ages. Most of his stances were rejected by his colleagues.