The principal city of Bosnia-Hercegovina which had been formally annexed by Austria-Hungary in 1908. In protest against the Austrian encroachment in the Balkans, on 28 June 1914 the heir to the Austrian throne, Francis Ferdinand (b. 1863, d. 1914), and his wife, were assassinated by Gavrilo Princip of the Young Bosnia terrorist organization. He was assisted by the Black Hand terrorist organization from Serbia. Austria-Hungary accused the Serbian government of complicity, of which it was in fact innocent, and imposed harsh demands in retaliation. Although Serbia met most of these, war followed on 28 July which immediately escalated into World War I.
Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).