South African painter and teacher, born in Delmas, a small town in the Transvaal. She trained as an art teacher at the Witwatersrand Technical College Art School in Johannesburg, 1943–6, had a year of study in London and on the Continent, 1948–9, and later took a degree in fine art at the University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 1952–4. After teaching for some years at a girls' school she returned to the University of Witwatersrand as senior lecturer in charge of design. In 1965 she received an Oppenheimer grant and spent a year studying attitudes to art education in Britain and the USA, becoming recognized as an expert on the subject in South Africa. Her work as a painter has been varied. In spite of periods of abstraction, it has often reflected her environmental preoccupations, especially with plants and wildlife. She has also designed mosaics and tapestries. In 1974 she settled in Britain, but she has maintained contact with her homeland: in 1999 to celebrate her seventy-fifth birthday, an exhibition of her work was shown in the galleries of three South African universities.