King of Saudi Arabia during its transformation into an oil-producing power. Known for personal piety. During the 1960s and 1970s, emphasized Islamic values in response to rising Arab nationalism in Egypt. Rejected secularism and socialism. Implemented a ten-point reform program to abolish slavery, modernize the administration, reorganize religious and judicial institutions, revamp labor and social laws, utilize natural resources soundly, build efficient infrastructure, and establish consultative and local councils. Established the Ministry of Justice to integrate the judiciary into the government and the Council of Senior Ulama to provide the ruler with appropriate religious opinions and approvals. Assassinated by his nephew in 1975.