(b Weimar, 21 Jan 1859; d Weimar, 26 June 1923). German baritone. He studied with B. Borchers and Julius Stockhausen, making his début in 1878 as Wolfram in Tannhäuser at Weimar, where he was engaged until 1886. He then sang at Dresden until 1911. After a guest appearance in Munich (1882) as Wolfram, he made his London début at Covent Garden in the same role (1884), and that season also sang Pizarro in Fidelio, Telramund in Lohengrin, Kurwenal in Tristan und Isolde and Rucello in Charles Villiers Stanford's Savonarola; he returned in 1899 to sing Hans Sachs. He appeared at every Bayreuth festival from 1886 to 1892, alternating as Klingsor and Amfortas in Parsifal, and singing Kurwenal, Hans Sachs and Wolfram, a part he also sang in Vienna (1899) and at La Scala, Milan (1892). A stylish singer with a fine, well-placed voice, he was as successful in Italian as in German roles; at Dresden, he sang Alfio in Cavalleria rusticana (1891), David in L'amico Fritz (1892) and Scarpia in Tosca (1902), all first local performances. He created two Strauss roles, Kunrad in Feuersnot (1901) and Faninal in Der Rosenkavalier. After his retirement he taught at the Musikhochschule in Weimar until 1920, and then directed the Landesbühnen Sachsen, Dresden-Radebeul, for two years.
From The Grove Book of Opera Singers in Oxford Reference.