Symptoms of schizophrenia first classified by German psychiatrist Kurt Schneider (1887–1967) in 1938. First-rank symptoms were considered by Schneider to be particularly indicative of schizophrenia; they include all forms of thought alienation, delusional perception, passivity, and third-person auditory hallucinations in the form of either a running commentary or voices talking about the patient among themselves. Some schizophrenic patients never exhibit first-rank symptoms or only experience them in some psychotic episodes. They may also occur in mania. Second-rank symptoms are common symptoms of schizophrenia but also often occur in other forms of mental illness. They include delusions of reference, paranoid and persecutory delusions, and second-person auditory hallucinations.
Subjects: medicine and health.