Schneiderian first- and second-rank symptoms

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Symptoms of schizophrenia first classified by German psychiatrist Kurt Schneider (1887–1967) in 1938. First-rank symptoms were considered by Schneider to be particularly indicative of schizophrenia; they include all forms of thought alienation, delusional perception, passivity, and third-person auditory hallucinations in the form of either a running commentary or voices talking about the patient among themselves. Some schizophrenic patients never exhibit first-rank symptoms or only experience them in some psychotic episodes. They may also occur in mania. Second-rank symptoms are common symptoms of schizophrenia but also often occur in other forms of mental illness. They include delusions of reference, paranoid and persecutory delusions, and second-person auditory hallucinations.

Subjects: medicine and health.

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