(c. 1175–c. 1235),
a Scottish scholar, studied at Oxford, Bologna, and Paris, and was attached to the court of Frederick II at Palermo, probably as official astrologer. He translated works of Aristotle from Arabic to Latin (including De Anima, pre‐1220), and perhaps Averroës' great Aristotelian Commentary. He studied astronomy, and legends of his magical power served as a theme for many writers from Dante (Inferno, xx. 116) to Sir W. Scott in The Lay of the Last Minstrel.