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Individuals are encouraged as part of health-promotion and disease-prevention programs to perform breast self-examination, testicular self-examination, self-examination for evidence of skin cancers insofar as it affects visible parts of the body, etc. Ideally, this should be preceded by education about how to do it and accompanied by professional confirmation that self-detected lesions are actually present. Unfortunately, there is no reliable way, other than confirmatory medical tests, to detect false-negative examination, i.e., failure of a person to find lesions that are actually present. The efficacy of breast self-examination is considered limited, at best.

Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.

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