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In transmission models of communication, the source of a message to the receiver(s). In such models the message is seen as owned as well as originated by the sender, who is also thought of as directing the act of communication and determining the meaning (or at least the preferred meaning)—though see also intentional fallacy. It is not always clear who the sender is. For instance, in an advertisement, the sender may, from different points of view be: the advertiser whose product is being advertised, the advertising agency which produced the ad, or a celebrity endorsing the product. In a literary text, the narrator as well as the author could be seen as a sender. The sender is not always even aware of sending, as in meanings ‘given off’ by body language. See also sender-oriented communication; sender/receiver; compare communicator.

Subjects: Media Studies.

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