Florida tribe composed mainly of refugees from the Creeks, with a large element of black ex-slaves. Still under Spanish rule, they were hostile to the U.S. in the War of 1812. In the first Seminole War (1817–18) they were subdued by Andrew Jackson, after which Spain ceded Florida to the U.S. The attempt to remove the tribe beyond the Mississippi provoked a second Seminole War (1835–42), which, at a cost of 1500 American lives and $20,000,000, resulted in the removal of most of the Seminoles and the death of their leader Osceola. The present Seminoles live in Oklahoma and southern Florida. Kirk Munroe's The Flamingo Feather (1887) is a romance about the tribe in the 16th century.