British museum curator. He was director of the Museum of Modern Art, Oxford (see Modern Art, Oxford) (1973–6), then the Whitechapel Art Gallery (1976–88), the fortunes of which he revived with an extensive building programme, energetic fundraising, and major exhibitions. These included a massive two-part exhibition of British sculpture in the 20th century (1981) and, considerably more controversial, ‘Art for Society’ (1978), which reflected the debates raging at the time about the need for a politicized art practice. In 1988 he was appointed director of the Tate Gallery. Under his directorship, the gallery has experienced an unprecedented expansion, with the opening of Tate Modern on Bankside in 2000.