1 An age in the Middle Miocene, preceded by the Langhian, followed by the Tortonian, and dated at 13.65–11.608 Ma (Int. Commission on Stratigraphy, 2004).
2 The name of the corresponding European stage, which is roughly contemporaneous with the Helvetian (Europe), upper Luisian and lower Mohnian (N. America), Lillburnian (New Zealand), and Bairnsdalian (Australia). The stratotype is in the Scrivia Valley, Italy.
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