Born in Morocco, educated in Tunis and Morocco, and died in Egypt. Founded the Shadhili Sufi order, combining formal scholarship with mystical exercises. The opposition of establishment Tunisian ulama to his preaching led him to move to Alexandria, Egypt, in 1244, where he gathered students and followers, founded a zawiyah (Sufi lodge), and created the distinctive organization, devotional activities, and social life of the order. He avoided close relations with the government. Passed down popular prayers and Sufi terms. The movement he inspired is one of the four oldest Sufi tariqahs and became the most important in North Africa. Buried at Humaythra near the Red Sea.