(b Red Bluff, Calif., 1916; d New Haven, Conn., 1999).
Amer. cond., particularly of choirs. Founder and cond. Collegiate Chorale, NY, 1941–54. Cond., Robert Shaw Chorale 1948–66. Taught at Juilliard Sch. Cond. San Diego SO 1953–7. Ass. cond. Cleveland Orch., 1956–67. Cond. Atlanta SO 1967–88. One of most gifted of choral conductors and trainers. First prof. cond. in USA to perf. Bach's Mass in B minor and Handel's Messiah with small forces.