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1 Concrete structure evolved from work by Candela, Freyssinet, Maillart, Nervi, Nowicki, Saarinen, and Torroja, and derived from the exemplar of an eggshell. The stressed skin or shell operates with the frame to form a strong structural system.

2 Scallop.

3 Ornament called coquillage in which shells and mother-of-pearl pieces are used for effect in grottoes, marine ornament, nymphaea, etc.

J. Joedicke (1963);Lewis & Darley (1986);W. Papworth (1887)

Subjects: Architecture.

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