Emperor of northern India (1540–45). His short-lived seizure of power from the second Mogul emperor, Humayun, made an important impact on Indian administration. An Afghan of humble origins, he had risen through military service to be well placed to take advantage of temporary Mogul weakness. After defeating Humayun twice (1539 and 1540) he made himself Emperor of Delhi, extending his control to Gwalior and Malwa. Before his death in battle he carried out innovations in the land revenue system and the army that were subsequently built on by the great Mogul administrator, Akbar.
Subjects: World History.