Russian painter, born at Kharkov. He studied in Paris, 1905–6, then in Moscow at the Stroganov Art School and the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture, 1906–9, and he evolved a style combining influences from both Russian peasant art and French Cubism (see Neo-primitivism). In line with these two interests he wrote two theoretical tracts, both published in Moscow in 1913: Neo-Primitivism: Its Theory, its Possibilities, its Achievements and The Principles of Cubism and Other Modern Trends in Painting of All Times and Peoples. At around this time he contributed to several avant-garde exhibitions, including *‘Donkey's Tail’ and *‘Target’. From 1918 to 1930 he was a professor at Vkhutemas, and in 1921 he became a member of Makovets.