Capital of the province of Fars in south-central Iran. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, Shiraz attained a remarkable literary status, to the extent that it was referred to as the “city of poets.” Classical poets such as Sadi and Hafez were both from Shiraz. In 1387 and again in 1393, Shiraz was occupied by Timur (Tamerlane). In 1724 the city was sacked by Afghan invaders. Several times in the course of Persian history Shiraz became the Iranian capital. During the Zand period (1757–94) Shiraz was the seat of the government of Karim Khan Zand (r. 1757–79). Buildings in the new city include a modern university (founded in 1945) and the Namazi medical center, named after its benefactor. Shiraz is noted for a variety of traditional crafts such as woodwork. Its modern industry includes cement, fertilizer, and sugar factories, as well as textile mills.