Also known as Mulla Sadra. Iranian philosopher and theologian. Synthesized elements of the Peripatetics, illuminationists, mystics, and Muslim theologians. Replaced the influence of Aristotelian philosophy on Shii theology with Neoplatonic emanationism. Drew on the philosophical tradition of Ibn Sina and on the illuminationist theories of Suhrawardi. Greatly influenced by Ibn al-Arabi's cosmology, but attempted to create his own synthesis of cosmological ideas. Highly influential in Persia, Muslim India, and Shii Iraq. His philosophy was taught in eighteenth-century India and revived in Qajar Persia. The message of his magnum opus, Al-asfar al-arbaah (The four journeys), came gradually to be known as “divine wisdom.” This powerful intellectual tradition has continued into the late twentieth century and remains the subject of theological commentaries today.